Pneumococcal vaccination in individuals with diabetes mellitus (ages 65-74 years)
Individuals who received a pneumococcal vaccination once after age 65 or in the last five years (numerator), among Individuals aged 65-74 years with diabetes (denominator)
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria and can result in a range of ailments, from mild ear infections to meningitis, sepsis and fatal pneumonia . Adults over the age of 65, especially those with chronic illnesses, are at an increased risk for pneumococcal disease and death . The incidence rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Israel between 2009-2010 for those aged 65-74 years was 20 per 100,000 people; incidence rate increased as age increased, with a case-fatality rate of 25% among 65-74 years-old . In addition to the childhood immunization routine, the Israeli Ministry of Health recommends that persons aged 65 years or older will receive the PPV23 pneumococcal vaccine, if more than five years have elapsed from the previous PPV23 vaccination .
Individuals in the denominator who received a pneumococcal vaccination once after age 65 or in the last five years
Individuals aged 65-74 years with diabetes
 Samir S. Shah, Adam J. Ratner; Trends in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease—Associated Hospitalizations, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 42, Issue 1, 1 January 2006, Pages e1–5,
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014. “Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help.” Last modified February 18.
 Dwolatzky T, Brodsky J, Azaiza F, Clarfield AM, Jacobs JM, Litwin H: Coming of age: health-care challenges of an ageing population in Israel. The Lancet, 389:2542-2550.
 In Hebrew: 2017 ,“1999האגף לאפידמיולוגיה משרד הבריאות, “תדריך חיסונים . [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12-June-2018]